Dark matter scaffolding of universe detected for the first time

A filament of dark matter has been directly detected between the galaxy clusters Abell 222 and Abell 223. The blue shading and yellow contour lines represent the density of matter.
Image credit: Jörg Dietrich, U-M Department of Physics

ANN ARBOR, Mich.— Scientists have, for the first time, directly detected part of the invisible dark matter skeleton of the universe, where more than half of all matter is believed to reside.

The discovery, led by a University of Michigan physics researcher, confirms a key prediction in the prevailing theory of how the universe’s current web-like structure evolved.

The map of the known universe shows that most galaxies are organized into clusters, but some galaxies are situated along filaments that connect the clusters. Cosmologists have theorized that dark matter undergirds those filaments, which serve as highways of sorts, guiding galaxies toward the gravitational pull of the massive clusters. Dark matter’s contribution had been predicted with computer simulations, and its shape had been roughed out based on the distribution of the galaxies. But no one had directly detected it until now.

“We found the dark matter filaments. For the first time, we can see them,” said Jörg Dietrich, a physics research fellow in the University of Michigan College of Literature, Science and the Arts. Dietrich is first author of a paper on the findings published online in Nature and to appear in the July 12 print edition.

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From Plato to late 20th century – A more or less concise, Historical Evolution of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence.

by: Teresa Escrig PhD. –

Dr. Escrig – a pioneer in service robotics – has written a fascinating and engaging history of man’s ongoing quest to develop artificial intelligence and robots.

Lets first consider the historical evolution that shows man’s desire to build a machine like ourselves. From philosophers and alchemists of the Middle Ages to 21st century scientists, the fascinating idea of creating a machine like the human being has endured.

The origins of Artificial Intelligence are attributed to the philosophers of antiquity. Plato (428 BC) wanted to know the characteristics of piety to determine if action could be regarded as pious. This could be the first algorithm. Aristotle conceived an informal system of syllogistic reasoning by which one could draw conclusions from premises, which became the precursor of reasoning.

Philosophers delineated the most important ideas related to artificial intelligence, but also needed a formalization of mathematics in three areas: computer science, logic and probability. Continue reading “From Plato to late 20th century – A more or less concise, Historical Evolution of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence.”